access control in a site basic security guard training

access control

Basic security guard training Unit 4 Lesson (A)

Access control is a mechanism which goals to allow persons, vehicles, and materials to the right place and at the right time.

This mechanism uses everywhere either in your house, driving the car or your office. You lock your house windows, doors and gate when you leaving out. After parking your car, you lock the door, windows by using a key. In your workplace, you lock the windows and doors after office hours.

All the above, are the access control mechanism which limits the unwanted people access to the property.

Security guards control the access by presenting themselves or using other types of method which are on the post order.

Controlling the movement of people, vehicle and material when in and out of the site, is “Acess Control”

The level of access control may be vary depending on the site what it needs to protect. But, in common, there are three categories of access control as following;


The minimum access control uses at the site for general admission. Such as in a mall, all people entering consider the lawful purpose. Only the security guard restrict the people who breach the law and regulation.


The medium access control uses mainly in residential building and offices. The security guard uses the intercom system to allow the person in. If someone wants to enter the building or offices. The security guard records the place is being visited and the personal detail of the visitor. At first, security guard informs to the related person and let him in after having the permission


The maximum level of access control found in the sensitive site, such as military bases, governments offices, labs and software manufacturer etc. The access controls here combining both the security guard and alarm system.

The rules of access control.

The access control rules may be vary depending on the site’s requirement. Some of the areas may allow access to the general public in a specific time and day.

In the office time lobby or the waiting area, people can access but after the office, hour restrict to be there. In the parking area also the same rules may apply for controlling the access.

These rules may change time to time after evaluating the security matter from the top management of the organization. In a large company have many departments and employees working over there.

The access control rules may apply both public and employees. In a big organization, employees may restrict to access the other department without any purpose.

What does access control determine?
  1. Need of the clients:-  The clients who do the business with a company always are more concerned about the safety of their product that they have bought, or that they have stored. Sometimes the clients’ need the different types of entry and egress mechanism. The result for that the policy can be changed as per the client’s requirement.
  2. The owner of the property:– The property owner may set all rules of the access control. He instructs the security guard who can access the building or area. And, what needs to search before entering and exiting to the property.

If you are working in a shopping mall or the residential building where the elevator or escalator facilities are available. You are responsible for supervising the elevator operation.

Make sure the following things go well on the operation of the elevator.
  1. Notify the maximum load to the passengers if it is overloaded.
  2. Encourage the passenger to move to the rear of the elevator and face to the front.
  3. Make sure the people clothing and personal belonging away from the door on closer.
  4. Know the emergency system such as a stop button, bell, and telephone numbers.

access control

The access control method in a site may be different but, most of the access control in property starts from an outer perimeter, inner perimeter, and Central core area.

 The outer perimeter is the surrounding of the property, inner perimeter considers the building or office’s wall, doors and windows, and last central core the interior part of the building or the site.

Controlling the movements of people 

Security guards require controlling the movement of the people at the various part of the site. There is 3 phase of defense similar to the above image, perimeter, inner circle, and center core. All of these three layers of the defense require to control the movement of people by security personnel.

How to control access at the perimeter?

  1. Fences and walls
  2. Gates and other openings
  3. Infrared beam perimeter security systems
  4. Cameras
  5. Lighting
How to control access to the inner perimeter?
  • Entry through the security guard
  • Enter through the mechanical and electrical device.

Entry through the security guard:- you may ask to do duty at the entrance of the building and check the personal identity and determine either person to allow in or not. The following way you should allow the person to access the building.

  1. personal recognition (you know the person personally) only useful for small business. Also, it applies in an area where the less movement of the people. Such as regular vendors, visitor and employees only come for work.
  2. ID system (check the person has valid ID card) these things you should make sure while checking the ID.
      • a colored photo and physical description of the holder
      • the full name and signature of the holder
      • the company’s name and an issuing authority’s signature
      • an expiry date
      • A serial number and employee number
  3. Special passes:- In a high-security area, the person requires the special pass to access there. If the person is a temporary worker he needs the special pass from the security guard. He provides you driving license, national id card or any other government-issued identity, and you provide the special pass.

At the exiting time, you should return their ID and get back the special passes. You should record all the detail in the logbook including entry/exit time and description of the work he has done.

Entry through the mechanical and electrical device:- It is used in the medium level of access where a security guard no need to check everything of the employees. They can go in by using pre-approval electrical and mechanical cards, keys and storage data.

  1. Keys
  2. Tough keypads
  3. ID card tags
  4. Proximity cards
  5. Biometric identification

Controlling the movements of vehicles

As we discussed above how to control the movement of people in the site where security guards are responsible for the access control. Since access control is an important element for the protection of your site. You should make sure the authorized person access the area and also authorized vehicle too.

There are three main responsibility for controlling the vehicle are;
  1. Only authorized vehicle are permitted
  2. Unauthorized equipment and material removal
  3. and maintain a log of a vehicle entering and leaving
 Tools to use for vehicle control 
  • Gate
  • Barrier
  • Traffic cone
  • Sign and symbol

When you are controlling the movement of the vehicles you should make sure the pre-approval vehicle only entry to the site. The employees may get approval from the company management to bring the car into the site. But you should ensure that they drive the car which was approved and has a label or striker of the company.

To control the transportation vehicle you should log in and log out when in and out of the premises. Not only this but also you require to get resister the driver’s detail in your access control book.

You should know the size and hight limit of the vehicle to the site. If the vehicle has exceeded the in term of size and hight should inform the supervisor.

Your task on controlling the delivery vehicle

  1. check vehicle license numbers and driver’s name
  2. Only the proper authorized delivery is given and received
  3. receive the delivery in accordance with post orders
  4. Check the vehicle is sealed and the “seal” is not broken or tempered.
  5. Verify the vehicle when leaving the premises to make sure it has loaded only authorized items and has waybills and any other supporting documents.
  6. Check the vehicle cabs to discover the prohibited items may conceal.

Controlling the movement of the material 

Controlling the material access is the most sensitive task a security guard performs on the duty. In the course of your duty, you may deal with the illegal removal of the material from your site either through the employees or the service vendor.

Routinely employes leave the site with things like a laptop, computer, computer parts, full briefcase with goods or the vehicle. As your part of the duty, you should allow only the legitimate material in and out of the premises. If you find anything that is not allowed for taking out, then ask the gate pass from the responsible person.

There is no doubt in today world, the industrial espionage has been increased day by day. Hence, the security guard has to prevent accessing the sensitive material and removing from the company.

Shipping and receiving controls

In some instance, the client may ask the security guard to sign some documents for shipping and receiving the goods. The clear client’s instruction requires or your post order includes these task to do on your duty.

You should comply with the client wishes when you controlling the movement of the material. You may require to do, as follows, with the shipping and receiving items.

  • Fill the special form of the receiving packages if available.
  • complete the logbook of the shipping and receiving goods
  • Delivery sign out and sign in
  • Make arrangement for the delivery and recipient goods.


  • Controlling the movement of people, vehicle and material when in and out of the site, is “Acess Control”
  •  There are a number of reasons why access is controlled
  •  Access can be controlled by
      • Physical systems (such as barrier, gate and door etc.)
      • Man guarding (security guard control the movement) or
      • Combination of both
  • Guard should be familiar with their site policies regarding access and be aware of their response to common access control situations
  • The 2 basic requirements of personnel access are
      • Determining to identify and
      • Determining the level of access.
  • Identification shown to you by a visitor/co-rep may not necessarily be in the form of an ID card.
  • Guards may be required to make sure there is a sign-in/ sign out log at their site
  • In handling unauthorized access, guards should make sure that they know their site policies and remain policy at all times.
  • There are 3 main responsibilities in controlling vehicle access:
      • Only authorized vehicle are permitted
      • Unauthorized equipment and material removal
      • and maintain a log of a vehicle entering and leaving
  • Guard should be aware of the approved vehicle at their site
  • Guard should aware of the height and size limitations of a vehicle access point
  • Ensure that a vehicle access point is kept clear for approaching emergency vehicles.
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